LF).Resources AND Solutions
Animal care and use statement
The animal protocol was developed to minimize discomfort
or discomfort on the animals. The animals had been
acclimatized to laboratory circumstances (23 ��, 12 h/12 h light/dark, 50% humidity, ad libitum entry to food
and water) for two weeks before experimentation.
Intragastric gavage administration was carried out
with conscious animals, Camptothecin UNC1999 Paclitaxel utilizing straight gavage needles
ideal for the animal size (15-17 g body weight:
22 gauge, 1 inch length, 1.25 mm ball diameter).
All animals had been euthanized by barbiturate overdose
(intravenous injection, 150 mg/kg pentobarbital
sodium) for tissue assortment.
Animals and chemical compounds
This analysis was implemented following the
suggestions from the Guidebook for the Care and Use
of Laboratory Animals of the Ministry of Health and fitness in the
People��s Republic of China.
The protocol was accepted
from the Committee around the Ethics of Animal Experiments
of Guangdong Health care University (Permit Variety: SYXK
2008-0007). Male C57BL/6 mice which were 8 wk old
(purchased from Shanghai Slac Laboratory Animal
Corporation and stored in SPF environment) had been utilised
in this study.
Major materials employed in this investigation incorporated
DHM and CCl4 (Sigma-aldrich, St Louis, United
States), assay kits for detection of serum ALT, AST, albumin, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and tissue SOD
(Jiancheng, Nanjing, China), assay kits for detection
of serum IL-1��, IL-6 and TNF-�� (RD corporation,
Minneapolis, United states of america), mouse monoclonal
antibody to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)
and SABC staining kit (Boster, Wuhan, China), key
antibodies to JNK, phosphorylation-JNK, TNF-��,
Cytochrome C, Bax and ��-actin (Cell signaling, Beverly,
MA), colorimetric assay kits of Caspases-3, 6, 8, and 9
activities (Calbiochem, La Jolla, CA), In Suit Cell Death
Detection kit-POD (Roche, Basal, Switzerland), and
SP600125 (Selleckchem, Houston, U.s.).
Preparation of animal model and DHM administration
The preparation in the animal model was done as
. Briefly, acute liver injury
was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4
(1 mL/kg) to test the hepatoprotective function of DHM.
Meanwhile, ALF mice had been ready by intraperitoneal
injection of a lethal dose of CCl4 (2.
6 mL/kg) to test
the impact of DHM about the survival rate of mice
was dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na) diluted in ultrapure water, to a ultimate concen-
tration of 37.5 mg/mL. Then, mice had been handled orally
with DHM (150 mg/kg per Camptothecin UNC1999 Paclitaxel mouse; once each day, for 4
d) 2 h soon after CCl4 treatment method. JNK inhibitor SP600125 (50
mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal injection
1 h before DHM treatment
. Mice were dedicated on
days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after CCl4 treatment to examine
a series of indicators of liver damage and regeneration.
Serum AST, ALT, albumin, SOD, IL-1��, IL-6 and TNF-��
Serum AST, ALT, albumin and SOD levels were established with the commercial assay kits. Serum
IL-6, IL-1�� and TNF-�� levels were
and the mice which have been injected with SP600125
could not survive within the acute liver failure induced by
lethal dose CCl4 injection.
Xie J, Liu J, Chen TM, Lan Q, Zhang QY, Liu B, Dai D,
Zhang WD, Hu LP, Zhu RZ. Dihydromyricetin alleviates
carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury via JNK-
dependent mechanism in mice. Planet J Gastroenterol 2015;
21(18): Camptothecin UNC1999 Paclitaxel 5473-5481 Out there from: URL: http://www.wjgnet.
com/1007-9327/full/v21/i18/5473.htm DOI: http://dx.doi.
The liver plays a important purpose in the regulation of physique
metabolic process at the same time as in detoxification. Because of these
vital functions, injuries to this organ must be
swiftly and effectively remedied.
Hepatotoxins, this kind of
as alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride
(CCl4), induced liver damage, that is characterized
by hepatocyte necrosis and dysfunction on the liver.
Since the mechanism of CCl4-induced liver injury is
incredibly just like liver illnesses, it can be usually used as a
hepatotoxin in experimental hepatopathy[1-3]
Dihydromyricetin was isolated through the tender stem
and leaves of the Ampelopsis grossedentata species. DHM
has quite a few pharmacological routines, such as anti-
inflammatory, antioxidation and anticarcinogenic effects
Within the current review, we aimed to assess the effects of
DHM being a hepatoprotective candidate in lowering hepatic
damage and accelerating hepatocyte proliferation following
The existing findings indicate that DHM
demonstrates a potent antihepatotoxic exercise in recovery
of hepatocellular apoptosis and acceleration of liver
regeneration throughout liver damage. A greater understanding of DHM-regulated liver regeneration will probably be crucial to
create successful interventions to avoid or treat liver
Tumor necrosis factor-�� (TNF-��) is really a pro-inflam-
matory cytokine. Activation of TNF-receptor loved ones
members is thought of to perform an essential part in the
pathogenesis and progression of liver disease[5,6]
is implicated in hepatocyte apoptosis, but the pathways
contributing to initiation and progression of acute liver
damage are presently vague
. The JNK signaling pathway
plays a vital part in TNF-dependent acute liver
JNK has been shown to be concerned in
liver carcinogenesis and be required for hepatocellular
carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation and hepatocyte
proliferation in liver regeneration
. In the former study,
we identified that CCl4 could maximize TNF-�� expression
in serum and liver tissue, which success in acute liver
. Furthermore, we uncovered that DHM could up-
regulate the activation Camptothecin UNC1999 Paclitaxel of JNK, and then decreased the
expression of TNF-�� in CCl4-induced liver damage mice.
Furthermore, the hepatoprotective purpose of DHM could
be inhibited soon after blocking the activation of JNK. These
final results suggest that DHM can be a therapy option for liver damage. We therefore assess its therapeutic prospective
in clinically relevant models of TNF-mediated liver
injury and acute liver failure (A